Gender-Based Differences among the Students of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences in Academic Help-Seeking Styles and Procrastination


Ramin Habibi Kaleybar 1 , *

1 Ph.D. in Educational Psychology, Assistant Professor, Department of Education, Faculty of Education & Psychology, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz, Iran, Iran

How to Cite: Habibi Kaleybar R. Gender-Based Differences among the Students of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences in Academic Help-Seeking Styles and Procrastination, Strides Dev Med Educ. 2016 ; 13(2):e57949.


Strides in Development of Medical Education: 13 (2); e57949
Published Online: June 15, 2016
Article Type: Research Article
Received: July 11, 2017
Accepted: April 09, 2016




Background & Objective: Procrastination is one of the effective factors that reduce students’ academic performance. The rate of procrastination and help-seeking styles may be different in male and female students and this can affect their academic performance. So, this research aimed to determine the differences among male and female students of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran, in academic procrastination and academic help-seeking styles.

Methods: In this descriptive study, research participants included 392 students (234 female and 158 male) of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences in the academic year of 2014-15 who were selected using stratified random sampling method. Procrastination Assessment Scale and academic help-seeking styles questionnaire were performed by the participants. Validity and reliability of questionnaires were approved. The gathered data were analyzed via SPSS software using MANOVA test.

Results: There were significant differences among the male and female students regarding procrastination and academic help-seeking style components. The mean scores of readiness for the exams and providing the midterm report components (14.48) was higher in female students. In addition, female university students used autonomous help-seeking style (16.29) while male university students used avoidant help-seeking style (9.20).

Conclusion: Totally, higher or lower scores in students’ procrastination and academic help-seeking style components depends on factors such as parents’ attitude or insight to parenting styles. This research has implications for teachers, educators and consultants which can be used for improving the university students’ achievement.


Academic procrastination Academic help-seeking style Gender Differences

© 2016, Medical Education Development Center. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.




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