Strides in Development of Medical Education

Published by: Kowsar

Correlation of Motivational Beliefs and Cognitive and Metacognitive Strategies with Academic Achievement of Students of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

Ahad Amiri Gharghani 1 , Majid Amiri Gharghani 2 and Ali Asghar Hayat 3 , *
Authors Information
1 Medical Education Development Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
2 Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Sirjan Faculty of Medical Sciences, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
3 Education Development Center, Clinical Education Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
Article information
  • Strides in Development of Medical Education: 15 (1); e81169
  • Published Online: January 30, 2019
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: June 23, 2018
  • Revised: September 24, 2018
  • Accepted: September 30, 2018
  • DOI: 10.5812/sdme.81169

To Cite: Amiri Gharghani A, Amiri Gharghani M, Hayat A A. Correlation of Motivational Beliefs and Cognitive and Metacognitive Strategies with Academic Achievement of Students of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Strides Dev Med Educ. Online ahead of Print ; 15(1):e81169. doi: 10.5812/sdme.81169.

Copyright © 2019, Strides in Development of Medical Education. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
2. Objectives
3. Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
  • 1. Mega C, Ronconi L, De Beni R. What makes a good student? How emotions, self-regulated learning, and motivation contribute to academic achievement. J Educ Psychol. 2014;106(1):121-31. doi: 10.1037/a0033546.
  • 2. Artino AR Jr, Dong T, DeZee KJ, Gilliland WR, Waechter DM, Cruess D, et al. Achievement goal structures and self-regulated learning: Relationships and changes in medical school. Acad Med. 2012;87(10):1375-81. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0b013e3182676b55. [PubMed: 22914521].
  • 3. van den Berg G, Coetzee LR. Academic self-concept and motivation as predictors of academic achievement. Int J Educ Sci. 2017;6(3):469-78. doi: 10.1080/09751122.2014.11890158.
  • 4. Soares DL, Lemos GC, Primi R, Almeida LS. The relationship between intelligence and academic achievement throughout middle school: The role of students' prior academic performance. Learn Indiv Differ. 2015;41:73-8. doi: 10.1016/j.lindif.2015.02.005.
  • 5. Ghazivakili Z, Norouzi Nia R, Panahi F, Karimi M, Gholsorkhi H, Ahmadi Z. The role of critical thinking skills and learning styles of university students in their academic performance. J Adv Med Educ Prof. 2014;2(3):95-102. [PubMed: 25512928]. [PubMed Central: PMC4235550].
  • 6. García O, López F, Icaran E, Burgos S. Relationship between general intelligence, competences and academic achievement among university students. Pers Indiv Differ. 2014;60. S67. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2013.07.296.
  • 7. Shin HI, Jeon WT, Yang EB. Relationship between learning strategies and academic achievement in medical college and graduate medical school students. Korean J Med Educ. 2010;22(3):197-204. doi: 10.3946/kjme.2010.22.3.197. [PubMed: 25813944].
  • 8. Moldasheva G, Mahmood M. Personality, learning strategies, and academic performance: Evidence from post-Soviet Kazakhstan. Educ + Train. 2014;56(4):343-59. doi: 10.1108/et-10-2012-0101.
  • 9. Julius M, Evans AS. Study of the relationship between study habits and academic achievement of students: A case of spicer higher secondary school, India. Int J Educ Admin Pol Stud. 2015;7(7):134-41. doi: 10.5897/ijeaps2015.0404.
  • 10. Awang MM, Ahmad AR, Bakar NA, Ghani SA, Yunus ANM, Ibrahim MAH, et al. Students' attitudes and their academic performance in nationhood education. Int Educ Stud. 2013;6(11):21-8.
  • 11. Pintrich PR, de Groot EV. Motivational and self-regulated learning components of classroom academic performance. J Educ Psychol. 1990;82(1):33-40. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.82.1.33.
  • 12. Zimmerman BJ. Motivational sources and outcomes of self-regulated learning and performance: Graduate center of city university of New York. Handbook of self-regulation of learning and performance. Routledge; 2011. p. 63-78.
  • 13. Winne PH. A cognitive and metacognitive analysis of self-regulated learning: Faculty of education, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, Canada. Handbook of self-regulation of learning and performance. Routledge; 2011. p. 29-46.
  • 14. Zimmerman BJ. Attaining self-regulation: A social cognitive perspective. In: Boekaerts M, Pintrich PR, Zeidner M, editors. Handbook of self-regulation. Massachusetts, US: Academic Press; 2000. p. 13-39. doi: 10.1016/b978-012109890-2/50031-7.
  • 15. Pintrich PR, Smith DAF, Garcia T, McKeachie WJ. Reliability and predictive validity of the motivated strategies for learning questionnaire (MSLQ). Educ Psychol Meas. 2016;53(3):801-13. doi: 10.1177/0013164493053003024.
  • 16. Weinstein CE, Acee TW, Jung JH. Self-regulation and learning strategies. New Dir Teach Learn. 2011;2011(126):45-53. doi: 10.1002/tl.443.
  • 17. Bortoletto D, Boruchovitch E. Learning strategies and emotional regulation of pedagogy students. Paidéia (Ribeirão Preto). 2013;23(55):235-42. doi: 10.1590/1982-43272355201311.
  • 18. Msayar H, Akhmal R, Mardhiana R. The relationship between test anxiety and academic self - regulated learning among foundation students in Iium. Sci J Educ. 2016;4(2):39. doi: 10.11648/j.sjedu.20160402.14.
  • 19. Çetin B. Academic motivation and self-regulated learning in predicting academic achievement in college. J Int Educ Res. 2015;11(2):95-106.
  • 20. Mousoulides N, Philippou G, editors. Students' motivational beliefs, self-regulation strategies and mathematics achievement. Proceedings of the 29th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education. 2005; Melbourne, Australia. 2005. p. 321-8.
  • 21. Kitsantas A, Zimmerman BJ. College students’ homework and academic achievement: The mediating role of self-regulatory beliefs. Metacogn Learn. 2008;4(2):97-110. doi: 10.1007/s11409-008-9028-y.
  • 22. Dignath C, Buettner G, Langfeldt HP. How can primary school students learn self-regulated learning strategies most effectively? A meta-analysis on self-regulation training programmes. Educ Res Rev. 2008;3(2):101-29. doi: 10.1016/j.edurev.2008.02.003.
  • 23. Pintrich PR. Understanding self-regulated learning. New Dir Teach Learn. 1995;1995(63):3-12. doi: 10.1002/tl.37219956304.
  • 24. Bromme R, Pieschl S, Stahl E. Epistemological beliefs are standards for adaptive learning: A functional theory about epistemological beliefs and metacognition. Metacogn Learn. 2009;5(1):7-26. doi: 10.1007/s11409-009-9053-5.
  • 25. Schunk DH, Usher EL. Assessing self-efficacy for self-regulated learning. In: Zimmerman BJ, Schunk D, editors. Handbook of self-regulation of learning and performance. New York: Routledge; 2011. p. 282-97. doi: 10.4324/9780203839010.
  • 26. King RB, Areepattamannil S. What students feel in school influences the strategies they use for learning: Academic emotions and cognitive/meta-cognitive strategies. J Pac Rim Psychol. 2014;8(1):18-27. doi: 10.1017/prp.2014.3.
  • 27. Neuville S, Frenay M, Bourgeois E. Task value, self-efficacy and goal orientations: Impact on self-regulated learning, choice and performance among university students. Psychol Belg. 2007;47(1):95-117. doi: 10.5334/pb-47-1-95.
  • 28. Pekrun R, Goetz T, Titz W, Perry RP. Academic emotions in students' self-regulated learning and achievement: A program of qualitative and quantitative research. Educ Psychol. 2002;37(2):91-105. doi: 10.1207/s15326985ep3702_4.
  • 29. Henrich J, Heine SJ, Norenzayan A. Most people are not WEIRD. Nature. 2010;466(7302):29. doi: 10.1038/466029a. [PubMed: 20595995].
  • 30. Levy PS, Lemeshow S. Sampling of populations: Methods and applications. 4th ed. New Jersey, US: John Wiley & Sons; 2013.
  • 31. Farhadinia M, Qulipor P, Jalilvand M. [Relationship learning strategies and academic self-efficacy with academic achievement of students in Lorestan University of Medical Sciences in 2016]. Yafte. 2018;19(5):9-17. Persian.
  • 32. Colorado JT. The relationship of self-regulated learning and academic performance in an online course environment [dissertation]. Lawrence, Kansas, U.S: University of Kansas; 2006.
  • 33. Valkyrie KT. Self-regulated learning: An examination of motivational, cognitive, resource management, metacognitive components and academic outcomes with open admissions community college students [dissertation]. Houston, Texas, U.S: University of Houston; 2006.
  • 34. Bouffard-Bouchard T, Parent S, Lavirée S. Self-regulation on a concept-formation task among average and gifted students. J Exp Child Psychol. 1993;56(1):115-34. doi: 10.1006/jecp.1993.1028.
  • 35. Ahmed W, van der Werf G, Kuyper H, Minnaert A. Emotions, self-regulated learning, and achievement in mathematics: A growth curve analysis. J Educ Psychol. 2013;105(1):150-61. doi: 10.1037/a0030160.
  • 36. Abedini Y, Bagherian R, Kadkhodaie MS. [The relation among motivational beliefs, cognitive and metacognitive strategies and academic achievement: Testing of alternative models]. J Adv Cogn Sci. 2010;12(2):34-48. Persian.
  • 37. Liem AD, Lau S, Nie Y. The role of self-efficacy, task value, and achievement goals in predicting learning strategies, task disengagement, peer relationship, and achievement outcome. Contemp Educ Psychol. 2008;33(4):486-512. doi: 10.1016/j.cedpsych.2007.08.001.
  • 38. Pakdaman Savoji A, Beheshteh N, Boreiri L. Relationship between epistemological beliefs, self-regulated learning strategies and academic achievement. Procedia - Soc Behav Sci. 2013;84:1160-5. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.06.719.
  • 39. Sungur S, Kahraman N. The contribution of motivational beliefs to students' metacognitive strategy use. Educ Sci. 2011;36(160).
  • 40. Pintrich PR. The role of motivation in promoting and sustaining self-regulated learning. Int J Educ Res. 1999;31(6):459-70. doi: 10.1016/s0883-0355(99)00015-4.
  • 41. Al-Harthy IS, Was CA, Isaacson RM. Goals, efficacy and metacognitive self-regulation a path analysis. Int J Educ. 2010;2(1). doi: 10.5296/ije.v2i1.357.
  • 42. Alyami M, Melyani Z, Al Johani A, Ullah E, Alyami H, Sundram F, et al. The impact of self-esteem, academic self-efficacy and perceived stress on academic performance: A cross-sectional study of Saudi psychology students. Europ J Educ Sci. 2017;4(3). doi: 10.19044/ejes.v4no3a5.
  • 43. Zajacova A, Lynch SM, Espenshade TJ. Self-efficacy, stress, and academic success in college. Res High Educ. 2005;46(6):677-706. doi: 10.1007/s11162-004-4139-z.
  • 44. Domenech-Betoret F, Abellan-Rosello L, Gomez-Artiga A. Self-efficacy, satisfaction, and academic achievement: The mediator role of students' expectancy-value beliefs. Front Psychol. 2017;8:1193. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01193. [PubMed: 28769839]. [PubMed Central: PMC5513915].
  • 45. Villavicencio FT, Bernardo ABI. Negative emotions moderate the relationship between self-efficacy and achievement of Filipino students. Psychol Stud. 2013;58(3):225-32. doi: 10.1007/s12646-013-0193-y.
  • 46. Sadi O, Uyar M. The relationship between self-efficacy, self-regulated learning strategies and achievement: A path model. J Baltic Sci Educ. 2013;12(1):21-33.
  • 47. Diseth A. Self-efficacy, goal orientations and learning strategies as mediators between preceding and subsequent academic achievement. Learn Indiv Differ. 2011;21(2):191-5. doi: 10.1016/j.lindif.2011.01.003.
  • 48. Komarraju M, Nadler D. Self-efficacy and academic achievement: Why do implicit beliefs, goals, and effort regulation matter? Learn Indiv Differ. 2013;25:67-72. doi: 10.1016/j.lindif.2013.01.005.
  • 49. Lee W, Lee M-J, Bong M. Testing interest and self-efficacy as predictors of academic self-regulation and achievement. Contemp Educ Psychol. 2014;39(2):86-99. doi: 10.1016/j.cedpsych.2014.02.002.
  • 50. Chemers MM, Hu L-T, Garcia BF. Academic self-efficacy and first year college student performance and adjustment. J Educ Psychol. 2001;93(1):55-64. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.93.1.55.
  • 51. Bandura A, Freeman WH, Lightsey R. Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. J Cognit Psychother. 1999;13(2):158-66. doi: 10.1891/0889-8391.13.2.158.
  • 52. Schunk DH. Self-efficacy and academic motivation. Educ Psychol. 1991;26(3-4):207-31. doi: 10.1080/00461520.1991.9653133.
  • 53. Schunk DH, Ertmer PA. Self-regulation and academic learning: Self-efficacy enhancing interventions. In: Boekaerts M, Pintrich PR, Zeidner M, editors. Handbook of self-regulation. Massachusetts, US: Academic Press; 2000. p. 631-49. doi: 10.1016/b978-012109890-2/50048-2.
  • 54. Bandura A. Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychol Rev. 1977;84(2):191-215. [PubMed: 847061].
  • 55. Pintrich PR. A motivational science perspective on the role of student motivation in learning and teaching contexts. J Educ Psychol. 2003;95(4):667-86. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.95.4.667.
  • 56. Kurbanoglu NI, Akim A. The relationships between university students’ chemistry laboratory anxiety, attitudes, and self-efficacy beliefs. Aust J Teach Educ. 2010;35(8). doi: 10.14221/ajte.2010v35n8.4.
  • 57. Artino AR Jr. Academic self-efficacy: From educational theory to instructional practice. Perspect Med Educ. 2012;1(2):76-85. doi: 10.1007/s40037-012-0012-5. [PubMed: 23316462]. [PubMed Central: PMC3540350].
  • 58. Margolis H, McCabe PP. Self-efficacy: A key to improving the motivation of struggling learners. Clear House. 2010;77(6):241-9. doi: 10.3200/tchs.77.6.241-249.
  • 59. Lynch DJ. Motivational factors, learning strategies and resource management as predictors of course grades. Coll Student J. 2006;40(2):423-8.
  • 60. Pajares F. Gender and perceived self-efficacy in self-regulated learning. Theory Pract. 2002;41(2):116-25. doi: 10.1207/s15430421tip4102_8.
  • 61. Anderman EM, Young AJ. Motivation and strategy use in science: Individual differences and classroom effects. J Res Sci Teach. 1994;31(8):811-31. doi: 10.1002/tea.3660310805.
  • 62. Linn MC, Hyde JS. Gender, mathematics, and science. Educ Res. 1989;18(8):17. doi: 10.2307/1176462.
  • 63. Zimmerman BJ, Martinez-Pons M. Student differences in self-regulated learning: Relating grade, sex, and giftedness to self-efficacy and strategy use. J Educ Psychol. 1990;82(1):51-9. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.82.1.51.
  • 64. Peklaj C, Pecjak S. Emotions, motivation and self-regulation in boys’ and girls’ learning mathematics. Horiz Psychol. 2011;20(3):33-58.

Featured Image:

Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments