The qualitative data analysis culminated in extracting 224 primary codes that were reduced to 107 after several reviews and the integration of similar codes. They were then categorized in seven main classes as follows: identifying and determining talent requirements, discovering talent resources, talent attraction, developing potential abilities of talent, Attracting talents, and evaluation and alignment of talent management activities (
Table 2. Talent Management Components and Subcomponents
Component Subcomponent Defining and identifying talent needs Identifying and determining gaps between current and future talent of the organization Determining the general competencies of faculty members Determining the specific competencies of faculty members Discovering talent resources Talent supply chain management Determining the approach to discovering talent (sourcing) Evaluating different options for talent sourcing Attracting talents Evaluating competencies (screening and selection) Factors affecting talent attraction developing the potential abilities of talent Increasing learning capacity in the organization Designing high - performance learning programs Combination and recombination of talent Strategically deploying talents Coordinating and aligning talents with employee expectations and organizational goals Combining and re - combining talents Retaining talents University support An atmosphere of teaching and education in the university Working conditions Developing the career path Evaluation and alignment of management activities Designing a competency - oriented evaluation program Designing an insight - oriented evaluation program Evaluation of important indices or criteria of human capital health 3.1. Identifying and Determining Talent Requirements
As shown in
Table 1, respondents’ comments on identifying and determining talent requirements were categorized into three subscales. 3.2. Identifying and Determining the Gaps Between the Current and Future Talent of the Organization
Based on respondents’ comments, the talent management procedure begins by determining the qualitative and quantitative features of the talent required for effective implementation. It starts by analyzing and understanding the talent available in the university. In addition, the ideal situation of the university in terms of knowledge, skills, and required potential should also be determined. Respondent No. 13 stated the following: “By reviewing the five-year strategy of the university, you can estimate how many faculty members are required.” Respondent No. 4 added, “Universities should be aware of the current needs and shortages of talented people as well as the challenges ahead of them. Directors should also ensure that the university is on the right track towards achieving goals.”
3.3. Determining the General Competencies of Faculty Members
Most respondents believed that once directors understood their talent requirements, they could determine the general and specific competencies of faculty members needed to perform their tasks and realize the strategic goals of the university. Based on the comments of participants, competencies meant a set of skills, knowledge, and behaviors needed for effective role - playing. Furthermore, respondents believed that to determine the level of faculty members’ general competencies, the following factors should be considered: personal characteristics, emotional intelligence, verbal skills, behavior, novelty, idealism, learning ability, and rules observance. Respondents No. 15, 12, 9, and 4 further suggested features such as risk-taking, challenging, lack of obedience, courage, vigilance, high adaptability, hopefulness, and motivation as the personal characteristics of faculty members.
Based on respondents’ comments (No. 2, 3, 4, 9), factors such as public relations, optimism, paying attention to what others say or want, the ability to convince others, persuasion, extraversion, and a high tolerance threshold should be included in the characteristics of emotional intelligence and verbal skills of faculty members. In addition, they added behaviors such as being hard working, patience, sensitivity, persistence, tirelessness, having a high morale, conscientiousness, being responsible and responsive, welcoming responsibility, loving to serve, staying away from hypocrisy and flattery, honesty and trustfulness, influencing university performance, being a work leader, and pragmatism (No. 4, 6, 9, 11, 12).
Respondents No. 4, 5, 8, and 11 included the following factors in the novelty aspect of faculty members: being an entrepreneur, creative, inventor, explorer, curious, designer, innovative, thinking ability, transformative, lack of quotidian - type personality, and being reformist. Furthermore, to the aspect of idealism they added perfectionism, higher levels of expectations, successfulness, and faith in the principles of value (No. 4, 8, 9, 10). Based on respondents’ comments, the learning ability aspect should include factors such as intelligence, being a fast learner, learning from experiences and failures, welcoming new experiences, and continuous learning (No. 4, 7, 8, 14). Furthermore, being familiar with rules and regulations, being lawful, understanding the university and flexibility within the scope of the law should be included in the rules observance aspect for faculty members (No. 1, 4, 15, 16).
3.4. Determining Specific Competency Levels for Faculty Members
Most respondents in this study noted that to determine the specific levels of competency for faculty members, some factors should be considered for the aspects of specialty, scientific - research records, and executive skills. In addition, they stated that for the aspect of specialty, factors such as higher education, specific knowledge and skills on education and training, computer literacy, and work experience were important (No. 4, 9, 10, 12).
Respondents noted the following factors as important to cultural-scientific records of faculty members: cultural - scientific research records, interest in science, mastering the work, and having educational and teaching skills (No. 4, 13, 15).
In addition, case - orientation, the ability to guide, time management, crisis management, organizational skills, programming ability, ability to solve discrepancies, guiding and leading skills, and problem - solving ability were considered important as the executive skills of faculty members (No. 4, 5, 7, 17).
3.5. Discovering Talent Resources
After Defining and identifying talent needs to meet the university’s strategic goals, respondents highlighted the most challenging factor as determining how the university can supply the required talent, also referred to as discovering talent resources. In other words, discovering talent is to identify talent resources to implement the general strategy of the organization most efficiently. The factors noted by the study respondents based on their experiences and viewpoints were categorized into the following three subclasses.
Talent supply chain management: according to the study respondents, to supply the required talent, it is important to employ an approach used in supply chain management. For example, the following questions can be asked: What talents are already available in the university? What resources are available to the university to supply the required talent? How should the university retain the talent (talent treasury)? Did the university analyze skills required in the future (balance of supply and demand)? Respondent No. 18 clarified, “Different talent supply chains should rapidly be adopted with sourcing channels and talent treasures to meet the strategic goals and changing conditions of the university.”
3.6. Determining the Approach to Discovering Talent (Sourcing)
Respondents agreed that all talent supply resources available to the university should be identified and faculty members should be supplied from different channels. In this regard, respondent No. 4 explained: “We can supply faculty members from both inside and outside the university.” Respondent No. 17 added: “It is important to identify how the university can supply appropriate skills from outside resources in the best way.” In addition, according to respondent No. 4, “Human resource supply channels can help through comprehensive, high - quality, and motivating websites.”
3.7. Evaluating Different Items for Talent Sourcing
According to respondents, talent can be discovered almost everywhere worldwide. Similarly, different methods are available to discover this talent. Respondent No. 8 elaborated: “Strategic sourcing requires the evaluation and assessment of all possible items of talent discovery and finding the best or a combination of best methods to supply the required talent.” Furthermore, respondents (No. 4, 12) added that “proper sourcing requires evaluating strengths and weaknesses as well as the opportunities and challenges of each source. Then, the best source to support a university’s strategic goals can be selected.”
3.8. Talent Attraction
Respondents suggested approaching talent attraction from two viewpoints, namely that of the university and that of applicants. Therefore, talent attraction was categorized into two subclasses, namely “evaluating the level of competencies (screening and selection) from the viewpoint of the university” and “factors affecting talent attraction from the viewpoint of the applicant.”
Evaluating the level of competencies (screening and selection) from the viewpoint of the university
Some respondents (No. 4, 13, 15) reported that “today, using pre - defined competency models is among the most suitable measure to screen and select the best applicants. It creates more assurance and certainty that appropriate talents are more efficiently attracted by the university with minimal cost, time, and energy.” Respondent No. 4 added: “We can employ competency models for both the evaluation and analysis of an applicant’s resume and to assess their knowledge and skills through structured interviews.”
3.9. Factors Influencing Talent Attraction
Respondents No. 4, 10, and 11 explained that “after identifying resources and the features of required talent, we must convey two messages: The first is about the brand features and attractions of the university as an employer and the second about the expectations to be met by people joining the university.” Respondent No. 4 added, “Adaptability and lack of discrepancy of the dual messages should be considered in each human resource supply channel, particularly web - based channels, as well as each stage of human resource supply. In addition, each factor that confuses or contradicts such messages to talented applicants should be eliminated. Furthermore, all promises made to new faculty members should be met as soon as they start working in the university and throughout their career paths.”
3.10. Developing Talent Capabilities
This refers to the continuous development of the knowledge, skills, and behaviors of a person or group of personnel to improve the general capabilities of the university. The features mentioned by the study respondents based on their experiences and viewpoints were categorized into three subclasses.
3.11. Increasing Learning Capacity in the University
Respondent No. 3 explained that “today, universities are interested in competencies associated with information technology (IT) to the extent that IT has become an essential requirement for scientists. Our universities should foster problem - solving skills, innovation ability, welcoming change, team work, the management and leadership of individuals, and capabilities associated with IT systems development.”
Respondent No. 4 added, “Our universities should simultaneously be a learning - teaching organization.” Respondent No. 6 elaborated that “learning does not only occur during educational courses and programs, but also in what occurs daily in the organization. As such, it can contain informative tips and be considered a learning resource.”
3.12. Designing High-Performance Learning Programs
Respondents agreed that investments would be appropriate and effective if learning and development programs were designed and implemented based on the gap between particular qualifications and skills and the developmental requirements of faculty members. According to a comment by respondent No. 4, “Here, the most important case is the type of learning programs a faculty member needs.” Respondents contend that the development of faculty members should focus on professional and individual development approaches (No. 4, 9, 13, 17). They also suggested emphasizing the following factors in professional development: improvement of learning, research, technical and interpersonal skills, and specifically, the ability to foster effective relationships with students. In addition, some respondents (No. 1, 2, 4, 13) highlighted the following factors in the individual development of faculty members: programming to develop their internal capacities (e.g., learning, thinking, communication, and implementation capacities), enhancing professional ethics, creativity, risk-taking, and innovation, quality of working life, and job commitment.
3.13. Evaluating Learning Effectiveness
Evaluation is an important feature of high - performance learning organizations. As such, respondent No. 11 stated, “To evaluate the implemented programs, the simplest method is usually unfortunately employed, which concentrates on the number of participants’ training programs, training hours, and satisfaction with the programs.” For respondents, the purpose of investing in learning and promoting skills and competencies is to enhance performance. Therefore, it is recommended to focus on evaluating learning effectiveness and the results and outcomes thereof (No. 1, 6, 7).
3.14. Strategic Employment of Talent
This capability deals with the placement of talent in appropriate positions at the right time to empower the organization in effectively implementing strategies to deal with challenges and harness future opportunities. Based on their experiences and viewpoints, the components identified by respondents were categorized into two subclasses.
3.15. Synchronization and Alignment of Talent with Personnel Expectations and University Goals
Some respondents (No. 4, 12) noted that Talent - Powered universities employ methods to better synchronize and align talent from inside and outside in locations (positions, roles, units, etc.) where they are most needed or best fit the position. Accordingly, they enable talented personnel to perform their tasks and equip them to deal with future challenges.
3.16. Combination and Recombination of Talent
According to respondent No. 7, “Universities should expect a high level of performance from their faculty members and educate them on how to benefit from their talent and capabilities using the most effective available method. They should also provide them with the opportunity to flourish and showcase their talents, and finally, give them continuous and constructive feedback.”
3.17. Talent Retention
The components raised in this regard by the study respondents are based on their experiences and viewpoints and categorized in five subclasses.
3.18. University Support
Respondents indicated that the level of university support available to faculty members significantly affects their retention. According to respondent No. 4, “support is not only to provide knowledge, technology, and training to a person, but is also associated with a favorable working environment or conditions, as well as the support and cooperation of managers for procedures and activities that need effort.”
3.19. Research Atmosphere of the University
Some respondents (No. 2, 4, 5, 11, 12) indicated that the research atmosphere of the university including being innovative and progressive, scientific and academic freedom, providing appropriate time and opportunities to conduct research, honoring research achievements, and providing research facilities and support affect the retention of faculty members.
3.20. Teaching and Education Atmosphere of the University
Some respondents (No. 4, 6, 9) considered that the atmosphere for teaching and education at the university including educational and teaching facilities, honoring successful teaching, and providing educational support influence the retention of faculty members.
3.21. Working Conditions at the University
The study respondents contended that occasions for personal and professional growth and development; colleagues’ motivation and dynamics; job security; fair salaries, benefits, and rewards; work - life balance; the competency of the management team, and university and faculty personnel affect the retention of faculty members (No. 4, 9, 16).
3.22. Career Development
Respondent No. 4 said, “Career development indicates how much authority people have in their work and can enrich their work experience resume. Furthermore, it reflects their pride in being introduced to the university and the extent to which they believe that university managers understand their career aspirations.”
3.23. Evaluation and Alignment
The evaluation and alignment of talent management activities is the most supportive factor in the talent management cycle or procedure. The talent management procedure enables dynamic coherence and integration to identify and determine the talent needed, as well as to discover, develop, and effectively use talent and align these actions with the general strategy of the organization. The components mentioned by respondents, which are based on their experiences and viewpoints, were categorized into two subclasses.
3.24. Competence - Oriented Evaluation Program
According to respondents, consolidating all procedures associated with talent management and developing and adopting a systemic and holistic approach are necessary. Some respondents added that the “use of a competency framework to integrate different components of the talent cycle is essential” (No. 4, 9, 12).
3.25. Insight - Oriented Evaluation Program
Based on the comments of respondents, evaluating faculty members’ performance based on designated performance indices and comparing the results to those of previous evaluations can provide useful data on the alignment of talent management activities (No. 4, 6, 9, 10). Some respondents note that the evaluation of teaching, research, creativity, and innovative activities, as well as professional and specific services provided by faculty members provides useful information on the alignment of talent management activities (No. 2, 15, 16, 17).
3.26. Evaluating Important Indices or Criteria of Human Capital Health
The study respondents mentioned that evaluating faculty members’ satisfaction with their jobs and the university, the rates of their service resignation and job transfers, commitment to the university, average length of employment, and total number of days allocated to their education and development can also provide useful data on the alignment of talent management activities (No. 2, 15, 16, 17).