Using Basic Constructs of Social Cognitive Theory in Predicting Students' Academic Achievement in Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Iran


Makiee Jamali 1 , Azita Noroozi 2 , * , Rahim Tahmasebi 3


1 M.Sc. Student in Health Education, School of Public Health, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran, Iran

2 Ph.D. of Health Education, Assistant Professor, Department of Health, Department of Health, The Persian Gulf Tropical Medicine Research Center, Bushehr University of Medical Science, Bushehr, Iran, Iran

3 Ph.D. in Biostatistics, Assistant Professor, Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health and Persian Gulf Marine Biotechnology Research Center, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran, Iran


Strides in Development of Medical Education: 11 (1); e60543
Published Online: May 31, 2014
Article Type: Research Article
Received: August 20, 2017
Accepted: January 13, 2014




Background & Objective: One of the most important criteria for efficiency of an educational system is learners' academic achievement. Discovery and study of factors affecting this item can be helpful in improvement of educational system. The aim of this study was to identify the factors affect students' achievement based on the social cognitive theory constructs.
Methods: In this cross-sectional study, using a systematic random sampling method, 428 students of Bushehr University Medical Sciences were enrolled in 2012-13. To determine academic achievement, the differences between the mean scores gathered by students in the theory courses (non-general courses) through the last two semesters were used. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire and standard questionnaires for academic self-efficacy, academic stress, multidimensional social support, and students' outcome expectancy. 
Results: Self-efficacy (Exp (B) = 1.02, P = 0.004), academic stress (Exp (B) = 0.919, P = 0.032), and school (P < 0.001) were direct predictors on academic achievement and social support, stress and place of obtaining diploma had indirect effect (through self-efficacy) on it. In girls, academic self-efficacy, academic stress and school and in boys, academic self-efficacy and school were predictors of academic achievement.
Conclusion: According to the influence of self-efficacy and stress in academic achievement, designing appropriate interventions and strategies to increase academic self-efficacy and stress management can improve students' academic achievement, especially in medical students.


Social cognitive theory Academic achievement Academic stress Social support Academic self efficacy

© 2014, Strides in Development of Medical Education. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.


  • 1. Reference is available in pdf