Comparative Study of the Performance Appraisal Systems for Academic Members’ Performance Appraisal Systems in the Various Universities in around the World According to the Diagnostic Model: A Qualitative Research


Mahnaz Khatiban 1 , * , Mehrnoosh Pazargadi 2 , Tahereh Ashktorab 3


1 Ph.D. in Nursing, Maternal and Child Care Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran, Iran

2 Ph.D. in Management Education, Associate Professor, Department of Educational Management, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, Iran

3 Ph.D. in Nursing, Associate Professor, Department of Nursing, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, Iran


Strides in Development of Medical Education: 11 (1); e60540
Published Online: May 31, 2014
Article Type: Research Article
Received: August 20, 2017
Accepted: November 16, 2013




Background & Objective: Reviewing the kinds of performance evaluation systems for academic members applying by different universities is one of the most important approaches to develop one. Therefore, as part of a broader research aimed to provide a performance evaluation model, we attempted to compare the performance evaluation systems of some universities around the world.
Methods: This study was performed through a qualitative content analysis method with the theoretical approach based on the Performance Appraisal Diagnostic Model (Wolf, 2003). The study population included all universities of the five continents. The universities that had their performance evaluation systems in English in their websites were chosen as sample group. A search was also conducted with the determined keywords through the search engines. The faculty performance evaluation systems of 19 universities were chosen from the continents: America (10), Europe (3), Oceania (2), Africa (3) and Asia (one in Turkey).
Results: The philosophies of all the reviewed performance evaluation systems were performance recognition, continuous development, identifying performance barriers and individual development needs. These systems were related to the systems of payment, compensation, recruiting, and performance development. The effectiveness of a faculty member was characterized by his/her performance indicators in line with the mission of organization in education, scholarship, and clerical area. There was a combination of the trait-, behavior- and result-based systems with different weights according to organizational and professional positions. The quantitative and qualitative data were gathered by different measures from multiple sources.
Conclusion: Considering the findings, the reviewed performance evaluation systems for academic members have important issues according to the Wolf’s diagnostic model.


Performance Appraisal Faculty member Qualitative study

© 2014, Strides in Development of Medical Education. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.


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